National Inquiry Deems Missing, Murdered Indigenous Women Canadian Genocide; Leaked Report


The final report from the national inquiry into cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls across Canada has deemed the situation a genocide.

The report was leaked by CBC News, which published the details on Friday.

The report found that about 1,200 women and girls have been murdered or gone missing since 1980, some advocates believe the actual number is far higher.

The report concluded that what happened in Canada consisted of a disproportionate level of violence facing indigenous women and girls in the country, spurred by “state actions and inactions rooted in colonialism and colonial ideologies.”

“Genocide is the sum of the social practices, assumptions, and actions detailed within the report,” the summary said. “As many witnesses expressed, this country is at war, and Indigenous women, girls…are under siege.”

The report acknowledged disagreements over what constituted genocide but concluded: “The national inquiry’s findings support characterizing these acts, including violence against Indigenous women, girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA [two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, queer, questioning, intersex and asexual] people, as genocide.”

The report also concludes that colonial violence, racism, sexism, homophobia and transphobia against Indigenous women, girls and two-spirit people has become embedded into everyday life, resulting in many Indigenous people becoming normalized to violence.

The report urges all actors in the justice system, including police services, to build respectful working relationships with Indigenous Peoples by “knowing, understanding, and respecting the people they are serving.”

Actions should include reviewing and revising all policies, practices, and procedures to ensure service delivery that is culturally appropriate and reflects no bias or racism toward Indigenous Peoples, including victims and survivors of violence, says the report.

During the course of the inquiry, it notes, policing representatives acknowledged the “historic and ongoing harms” that continue to affect First Nations, Metis and Inuit families, as well as the need to make changes to how non-Indigenous and Indigenous police work to protect safety.

CBC said the report contains more than 230 recommendations.

The 2014 murder of 15-year-old Tina Fontaine in Winnipeg sparked public outcry and renewed calls for a national inquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women and girls.

The inquiry was launched by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s government.

It has heard from more than 2,000 witnesses since 2017 – including survivors of violence and family members of missing women and girls.

The final report of the $92-million inquiry is slated to be released to the public in Gatineau, Que., on Monday.

The Closing Ceremony will be live streamed:

Website: http://www.mmiwg-ffada.ca

By RPM Staff, Updated June 2, 2019

Embattled MMIW inquiry asked for Two-year extension, gets Six more months

Carolyn Bennett, Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs, speaks as she is joined by Jane Philpott, Minister of Indigenous Services, left, and Maryam Monsef, Minister of Status of Women, during a press conference at the National Press Theatre in Ottawa on Tuesday, June 5, 2018. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick

OTTAWA — The commissioners of Canada’s national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls say the government’s decision to extend their work by only six months does a “disservice” to victims, survivors and families.

Carolyn Bennett, minister of Crown-Indigenous relations, announced Tuesday that the inquiry — which had requested an extension of two full years — is getting only six more months to complete its hearings and until April 30, 2019, to submit a final report.

“In seeking a two-year extension, we were striking a balance between the urgency of the issues and the need to do this work thoroughly,” chief commissioner Marion Buller said in a statement.

“Now, we believe political expediency has been placed before the safety of Indigenous women, girls and (LGBTQ and two-spirit) people.”

The commission, which has been plagued by chronic delays, staff turnover and complaints from families about disorganization, poor communication and a lack of transparency, was originally supposed to have its final report ready by Nov. 1 of this year.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada warned last month that the ongoing challenges were obscuring the needs of victims and survivors, with the unanswered question of a deadline extension adding to the uncertainty.

Bennett said the decision to extend the mandate by just six months was made in part because provinces and territories were not unanimously supportive of extending the terms of reference for the inquiry into next year.

“In the conversation with provinces and territories it was clear … that we weren’t going to get an extension of the terms of reference from some of them,” Bennett told a news conference.

She called the extension a “creative solution” that allows the terms of reference to be honoured in all of the provinces and the territories, meaning the commission will have to complete its research and witness testimony by Dec. 31.

At least one commissioner served notice Tuesday that she would reconsider her role with the inquiry as a result of the government’s decision.

“I am currently filled with a sentiment of incomprehension and deep disappointment,” Michele Audette said in a statement in French.

“I am giving myself the next few weeks to reflect, to analyze the decision, give my personal opinion and validate my future participation in the work of the national inquiry.”

Bennett would not say which provinces rejected the request to extend the terms of reference, but did indicate there was more than one.

Tuesday’s decision also follows consultations with survivors, families, Indigenous organizations and provinces and territories.

“We found support for giving the inquiry more time to submit its final report, but little support for the commission’s mandate to extend beyond the next election,” Bennett said. There are more survivors and families who want to take part, she added.

“The commissioners will decide how to use this additional time to hear from the remaining families and survivors, further examine institutional practices and policies and undertake the research necessary inform their recommendations on the systemic causes of violence against Indigenous women and girls in Canada.”

After submitting the final report, the commission will have until June 30 of next year to wind down its operations.

A paper bag used to collect the tears of those testifying, to then be burned in a sacred fire, is seen at the final day of hearings at the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, in Richmond, B.C., on Sunday April 8, 2018. (THE CANADIAN PRESS/Darryl Dyck)

Department officials say they will work with the inquiry to determine the budget. The Liberal government had initially earmarked $53.8 million and two years for the inquiry to complete its work.

In March, inquiry officials asked for a two-year extension in order to give commissioners until Dec. 31, 2020, to make recommendations and produce findings.

The inquiry’s interim report, released in November, called for an investigative body to re-open existing cold cases and for an expansion of an existing support program for those who testify.

The government says it will spend $9.6 million over five years to support the RCMP’s new National Investigative Standards and Practices Unit, and will fund a review of police policies and practices regarding their relations with Indigenous Peoples.

An additional $21.3 million will be provided to expand health support provided by the inquiry.

“Together with Indigenous peoples and partners across the country, we continue our collective efforts to help prevent and eliminate violence against women and girls, and protect future generations,” Bennett said.

Source: www.ctvnews.ca

MMIWG Families Slam ‘Colonial’ Inquiry Process, Demand Hard Reset

Marion Buller chief commissioner of national inquiry. (CP)

Relatives, supporters says their concerns have been ignored by commissioners, minister

Dozens of family members, activists and academics have written an open letter to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau demanding the “deeply misguided” inquiry into murdered and missing Indigenous women and girls be scrapped and restarted with a new panel of commissioners.

The coalition says relatives have been shut out of the process and that commissioners are on a path that will not lead to the successful fulfillment of the inquiry’s mandate.

“They have continually dismissed our concerns, refused to take steps to rebuild trust, and have maintained a deeply misguided approach that imposes a harmful, colonial process on us,” the letter reads. “This has and continues to create trauma as well as insecurity and a lack of safety for our families, communities, and loved ones.”

Families wrote a letter complaining about being excluded three months ago, but say their deep-seated concerns were ignored. The letter was used only to pit families against families, the coalition said.

Families and supporters are also accusing Indigenous and Northern Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett of dismissing their concerns.

A statement from the minister’s office said the government remains committed to ending the “ongoing national tragedy,” and that the inquiry’s terms of reference require that families be central to the commission’s work.

After meeting with the commissioners, Bennett was satisfied they had a plan and dedication to address families’ concerns, which will adapt as the inquiry progresses.

‘Immediate action’

The statement said the government is working in the meantime with Inuit, First Nations and Métis partners to honour the lost and to advance reconciliation.

“We’ve taken immediate action with a new gender-based violence strategy, changes to the child and family welfare system for Indigenous children, safe housing, shelters and work with British Columbia towards safe transport on the Highway of Tears,” the statement reads.

The inquiry has been plagued with problems, including staff departures and last month’s resignation by Marilyn Poitras, a Métis professor at the University of Saskatchewan. She cited issues with the “current structure” of the inquiry, which is set to get underway this fall.

But the letter from relatives and supporters says too much damage has been done and too much time has lapsed to rebuild trust now.

Instead of drawing on Indigenous knowledge and practices, the inquiry has been rooted in a colonial model that prioritizes a Eurocentric medical and legal framework, it reads.

“Such an approach is rooted in a broader culture of colonial violence that is inherently exploitative towards Indigenous peoples and causes ongoing trauma and violence for us as families,” the letter says.

Health, legal and community relations team workers for the inquiry are scheduled to be in two Saskatchewan cities this week to meet with families who wish to participate.

The teams are in Regina and Saskatoon to get in contact with families who want to participate in the truth gathering process which will be held in Saskatoon in November.

Source: CBC News

Frustrated Families Vow to ‘Blockade’ Missing and Murdered Inquiry Hearings

Jocelyn Wabano-Iahtail, right, comforts Shirley Gunner, as John Fox looks on during a news conference regarding the missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls national inquiry in Ottawa. (Justin Tang/Canadian Press)

Father of murdered woman says inquiry is at a ‘crisis’ point

By John Paul Tasker, CBC News Posted: May 23, 2017

Some family members of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls are vowing to blockade meetings of the national inquiry to protest what they call a disastrous start.

“We are prepared to take blockades against this inquiry, if it goes through our communities we will be there, it doesn’t matter where,” John Fox told reporters Tuesday.

Fox said many families are “tired of the commissioners,” the people who are responsible for collecting testimony from families, and they are frustrated with the lack of familial support. Fox said calls to the 1-800 number are not returned and emails go unanswered by the bureaucrats staffing the inquiry’s office. He wants to ensure he can get on the list of speakers when the inquiry finally rolls through his town.

“What are we supposed to do? What other things can I do to get my name on there?” he asked.

Fox, the father of Cheyenne Marie Fox, a 20-year-old woman who died in Toronto in 2013, said the inquiry has unfairly placed the blame on families for cancelling scheduled meetings this summer rather than admit they were simply not prepared.

The inquiry has said it would go ahead with the first meeting in Whitehorse at the end of the month, but suspend others until the fall because many witnesses told them that they would be out on the land hunting, trapping and harvesting and would not have time to meet with commissioners. Fox said Tuesday that was nonsense.

“They took that little bit of information, somebody said it in passing, but now they paint all our families with that one big brush, but that’s not fair,” he said. “The harvesting and all of that other stuff, that’s always going to happen … we would be there.”

‘They can’t even get the race horse out of the gate.’– John Fox

Fox said Indigenous Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett was able to hold pre-inquiry meetings throughout the country in a matter of months, but, nearly a year after the launch of the national inquiry, things remain largely at a standstill.

“Why can she pull off the pre-inquiry, and get all the statements in that short period of time? And this inquiry now … they don’t have an idea of what they’re going to do? All the money and expertise in front of them and they can’t even get the race horse out of the gate.”

(As of May 23, the inquiry has already spent roughly 10 per cent of its $53-million budget.)

Assembly of First Nations National Chief Perry Bellegarde also voiced his frustrations Tuesday. Bellegarde said he has invited the five MMIWG commissioners to meet with family members on three different occasions but was rejected.

“Clear communication and outreach to family members are essential to rebuild trust and ensure the national inquiry is a success,” Bellegarde said, adding the process must take a “families first” approach, based on respect for survivors and their loved ones.

Jocelyn Iahtail, who has long fought for a national inquiry, said many families have simply given up hope with the process so far because it has not respected Indigenous spirituality and language.

Jocelyn Iahtail, who has long fought for a national inquiry, said many have simply given up hope with the process so far because it has not respected Indigenous spirituality and language.

She said while Marion Buller, the chief commissioner, admitted last week some mistakes had been made, more needs to be done to regain the trust of many family members. Elders are trying to speak in their Indigenous languages but are simply not understood by record keepers, she said, and there is little respect paid to sacred instruments like the drum, fire ceremonies and tobacco.

“We cannot have our sacred stories yet again shelved like every other report has been shelved. We’ve had many family members state that it is running very much like the Indian residential school process when they were meeting with adjudicators. It is like a court process. We’ve been very consistent since the beginning that it has to be Indigenous knowledge-based.”

Iahtail said the commission has also been tight-fisted with money to help families travel to inquiry meetings, and has been reluctant to provide legal services to those in need.

Buller said Friday she understands frustration from families, but chalked up problems to poor communications.

“I don’t think it’s a matter of staff issues. It’s our fault for not communicating the tremendous work we have already accomplished.”

The commission has cycled through three directors of communications in 10 months, and has been plagued by complaints from family members about compressed timelines. The first interim report from the inquiry is due by November 2017.

[SOURCE]

Missing, Murdered Indigenous Women Inquiry Will Seek Extension, Admits To ‘Poor Communication’

Marion Buller, left, Chief Commissioner of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, along with her colleague, commissioner Michele Audette, in February 2017.

  • Staff – National Post | May 19, 2017

The chief commissioner of the national inquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women and girls has admitted to a “poor communication strategy” in the wake of intense criticism about the inquiry’s progress.

The commission is also planning to ask for an extension, now that only one hearing is scheduled to take place before the fall.

During a Friday afternoon press conference, Marion Buller said the commissioners are taking steps to improve communication.

The inquiry has hired a new communications officer, Bernee Bolton. Former communications director Michael Hutchinson was let go earlier this year, after only a few months.

“We take full responsibility for our poor communication strategy,” Buller said. “We fully acknowledge that and take responsibility for it.”

Buller was responding to an open letter published earlier this week, signed by more than 50 family members, indigenous leaders and advocates, claiming the inquiry is “in serious trouble.”

“We are deeply concerned with the continued lack of communication that is causing anxiety, frustration, confusion, and disappointment in this long-awaited process,” it read.

The letter raised concerns that the inquiry lacks leadership and is re-traumatizing family members of missing and murdered indigenous women.

But Buller said communication is the major issue, not leadership or staffing issues.

Some families have recently told news outlets they’re losing faith in the inquiry. But Buller said she’s been receiving calls from others who say “those people don’t speak for us.”

“I can tell you there’s still a lot of hope out there,” she told reporters.

The commission was supposed to complete its final report by November 2018.

But in a response to the open letter published Friday, Buller acknowledged that the inquiry’s original timelines “are no longer achievable.”

She wouldn’t say how long of an extension the commissioners might request.

At this point, there is only one hearing firmly scheduled, in Whitehorse at the end of the month. A team from the inquiry was in the territory this week to prepare for the week-long hearing that will begin May 29.

“The Whitehorse hearing is going ahead as planned,” Buller said Friday. “We owe that to the community.”

In the Yukon, it seems, many still have faith in the process, despite its flaws.

“I think it’s important,” said Bryan Jack, whose sister, Barbara, went missing as a teenager in Whitehorse in the 1970s. “It brings breathing room to a community that’s having a hard time.”

We are deeply concerned with the continued lack of communication that is causing anxiety, frustration, confusion, and disappointment

In many ways, the territory has been laying the groundwork for this moment for months.

After the first national roundtable on missing and murdered indigenous women was held in Ottawa in February 2015, the Yukon government and local indigenous groups decided to host their own events in Whitehorse. They organized a gathering for family members in December 2015, and a regional roundtable in February 2016 — months before the national inquiry was officially launched.

Jack was among those who shared their stories at the roundtable.

Afterward, he said, the local RCMP detachment followed up with him to see if he wanted to discuss his sister’s case any further.

“I really had a lot of respect for (the process),” he said.

Doris Anderson, president of the Yukon Aboriginal Women’s Council, said that regional roundtable “let the families know that they are being heard.”

Demonstrators hold pictures of missing aboriginal women at a rally on Parliament Hill .

The women’s council and several other indigenous groups have been instrumental in advocating for families and making sure they feel comfortable coming forward, even months after the roundtable.

Anderson is among those who signed the open letter criticizing the commission this week. But she’s still optimistic about the inquiry’s future.

“We were the first to begin with, so of course there’s going to be some stumbling blocks,” she said. “I think they’re working really hard to ensure that the process gets a lot smoother.”

The Yukon government declined a request for comment from the National Post. But Jeanie Dendys, minister responsible for the Women’s Directorate, wrote a letter to Buller in March inviting the commission to come to the Yukon.

“I also want to take this opportunity to request relevant, timely and transparent communication for our people,” she wrote.

For his part, Jack still isn’t sure he’ll make it to the hearing, as it’s nearly summer and he’s busy. But he said he’ll go if he can.

“Nowadays, it’s like the fire’s lit beneath the people with the authority,” he said. “And we’ve just got to get on with it.”

[SOURCE]

Advocates Say Missing And Murdered Women’s Inquiry Failing To Reach Out To Families

Lorelei Williams, left, speaks as Fay Blaney, right, listens during a Coalition on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls news conference in Vancouver on April 3, 2017. (DARRYL DYCK/THE CANADIAN PRESS)

The Canadian Press | Apr. 03, 2017

The national missing and murdered Indigenous women’s inquiry has failed to adequately reach out to loved ones and survivors, says a coalition of advocacy groups and families less than two months before hearings are set to begin.

The Coalition on Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls in British Columbia is calling on the commission and federal, provincial and territorial governments to do a better job of communicating with distraught families.

“This is the last chance that family members who want to be heard, will be heard,” said Michele Pineault, the mother of Stephanie Lane, whose DNA was found on serial killer Robert Pickton’s farm. “This inquiry is very, very important to a lot of people.”

Coalition member Fay Blaney said at a news conference on Monday that the group was concerned about recent media reports that said the inquiry had only located about 100 family members or survivors.

An RCMP report in 2014 said police had identified nearly 1,200 missing or murdered Indigenous women and girls in Canada.

Ms. Blaney said she understood the federal government had not shared with commissioners the names of those who came forward during preinquiry consultations due to privacy obligations.

She said the commission should immediately request that all levels of government and Indigenous organizations reach out to family members and survivors to ensure they know how to register to be a witness.

The coalition is also concerned that federal, provincial and territorial governments appear not to be assisting the inquiry, Ms. Blaney added.

Chief commissioner Marion Buller was not immediately available to comment, but the inquiry is holding a series of regional advisory meetings across the country to receive input from survivors and families before the first public hearing on May 29 in Whitehorse.

The commission has said families and survivors who would like to share their stories do not need to apply for standing and should instead send an e-mail or call a toll-free number.

But Lorelei Williams, whose aunt went missing decades ago and whose cousin’s DNA was found on Mr. Pickton’s farm, said the commission should be pro-actively reaching out.

“I’m feeling so frustrated and very upset about what is going on with this inquiry so far,” she said. “Families are freaking out right now.” Ms. Williams questioned why preinquiry consultations were held at all, if not to collect names of family members for the inquiry.

“What did they do that for?” she asked. “I’m going to assume that those families put their names forward for a reason. … They want to be a part of this.”

Shawn Jackson, a spokesman for Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, said it transferred to the national inquiry in November a database of information collected during the preinquiry process, including meeting recordings and correspondence.

However, Mr. Jackson said many people participated in the consultations anonymously and Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada is prevented by privacy rules from providing the lists of participants.

The coalition is also urging the inquiry to make efforts to include “families of the heart,” or friends. Evelyn Youngchief’s friend Georgina Papin was killed by Mr. Pickton and she said many friends of the missing and murdered would like to speak.

“We’ve been waiting for a very long time,” she said. “Changes need to be made on how aboriginal women are looked at. Stop killing us.”

Stephanie Lane’s mother, Ms. Pineault, said it has been difficult to tell her story over and over again for the past 20 years.

“It’s at a point now where I just want to say, ‘I want a life of normalcy. I just want to stay home and not have anything to do with this.’ But I have to do it to the bitter end.”

[SOURCE]

‘We Want The Violence to Stop’: Dozens Gather at Vigil for Jeanenne Fontaine

Lana Fontaine sat on a stool outside her largely burned-down home on Saturday evening at a vigil for her daughter, Jeanenne Fontaine, who died on Wednesday after being taken off life-support. (Austin Grabish/CBC)

Fontaine, 29, and Shania Chartrand, 21, were both shot, killed in Winnipeg this week

CBC News Posted: Mar 18, 2017

When Kimberley Kostiuk thinks about the two young Indigenous women who were shot in Winnipeg within 48 hours of each other, she is afraid for her own daughters.

“I have two young daughters that are that age. I worry for them all the time. You just don’t know … what’s going to be next. Two young women shot and killed in one week,” she said.

Shania Chartrand, 21, was shot late last Sunday night on the 200 block of Spence Street.

On Tuesday, Jeanenne Fontaine, 29, was found in her home after she was shot in the back of the head, according to her family, and the house was set on fire. She was rushed to hospital but died on Wednesday morning, after being taken off life-support.

A vigil for Fontaine took place on Saturday at 7 p.m. outside her home on the 400 block of Aberdeen Avenue.

“The whole community is sad. We are all sad. We are very scared,” Kostiuk said.

“We want the violence to stop. It’s enough, we are losing too many of our young women too soon. This shouldn’t be happening.”

Mourners came forward to offer Lana Fontaine condolences throughout the evening. (Austin Grabish/CBC)

Fontaine was the cousin of Tina Fontaine, the 15-year-old girl whose death sparked public outrage and calls for a national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls.

Sandy Banman was one of around 50 people who attended the Saturday evening vigil. Banman hadn’t known Fontaine or Chartrand, but came to support the families and community.

“It just seems like something has shifted in the last few years, where the crime [in the North End] seems to be getting extremely … violent,” she said. “It’s just absolutely shocking what’s going on here this week in the city, with Shania’s loss as well as Jen’s loss.”

A member of Winnipeg’s Urban Warrior Alliance, Banman said she’s been to too many vigils in the past. She wants to see change.

Sandy Banman

Sandy Banman, a member of the Urban Warrior Alliance, said she wants to see more accessible detox programs for men, women and families in Winnipeg. (CBC)

“We just keep saying over and over, ‘This has got to stop,’ every vigil I do,” she said. “We do these vigils because the community needs to heal as well as families. This violence has to end. It has to stop.”

Banman said she wanted to see more accessible detox programs for men, women and families.

“We need to be healing families so this kind of crime and violence will end,” she said.

‘They are human beings’

Kostiuk is a member of Drag the Red, an organization that started searching the Red River for bodies after Tina Fontaine was found there.

Kostiuk joined the group in order to heal and to help others after her 16-year-old daughter’s death in 2000.

While Fontaine struggled with drug use and had a criminal record, Kostiuk said she was also a mother and sister.

“You hear a lot of negativity also about these people but people don’t know them,” she said.

“They are human beings. They are women. They are our women. They are mothers. They are sisters. They are grandmas. They don’t deserve this. Nobody does.”

Kimberley Kostiuk says the violence needs to stop after two young Indigenous women were shot in Winnipeg within 48 hours of each other. (Tyson Koschik/CBC)

The vigil was intended to give the community an opportunity to mourn Fontaine and Chartrand and “remember the good that they had in them,” Kostiuk said. But they are becoming too frequent for the Fontaine family, she added.

“That poor family, I can’t imagine what her mother is going through right now,” Kostiuk said, adding the little cousins have lost too many family members.

“They’ve been to so many vigils already. They shouldn’t even have to think of this at a young age.”

[SOURCE]

#MMIWG: What A National Inquiry Can And Cannot Do

MMIW

APTN National News |

The Minister of Indigenous Affairs is expected to announce the details of the long-awaited national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls Wednesday including the terms of reference and commissioners that will take the lead.

The inquiry was first announced by Carolyn Bennett and Status of Women Minister Patty Hadju back in December 2015. The government followed the announcement with 17 information sessions to hear from families across the country about what they wanted from the inquiry and how the terms of reference should be written.  Part of what the government heard was:

Part of what the government heard was:

  • The leadership should represent Indigenous communities and regions.
  • It should also have a timetable that is sensitive to the needs of survivors, families and loved ones.
  • Efforts must be made to avoid a long, drawn-out and legal process.
  • The inquiry should include as many individuals and organizations as possible including survivors, families and loved ones, national Indigenous organizations, front-line workers, and Indigenous community leaders and organizations.
  • It should also respect different points of view.
  • The inquiry should take a broad approach to its analysis of the issues. It should look at the economic, cultural, political and social causes of violence against women, girls and trans and two-spirit people.
  • It should also look at the causes of unequal and unjust treatment of Indigenous women, girls and trans and two-spirit people and recommend solutions to the causes of violence.
  • The inquiry should provide a variety of cultural, spiritual and religious supports and ceremonies.
  • The ceremonies should reflect the diversity of all participants and regions and be supported by elders.
  • As well, it will be critical to have professional mental health counselling and community-based health supports. Professional and culturally-sensitive counselling will be needed if the inquiry is to be effective and avoid causing further trauma.

Police have been a focus of many families and groups who are looking to the inquiry to find answers.

In June, Assembly of First Nations National Chief addressed a conference of Canadian police forces telling those gathered that he was “putting them on notice” because families wanted answers on how investigators handled these cases.

BELLEGARDE-POLICE

Police services across the country have long been criticized for their handling of cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and a number of families are awaiting news about how police forces will be scrutinized during the inquiry.

In July, APTN National News was the first to obtain a draft of the terms of reference that will guide five commissioners in their duties. While police are not mentioned specifically, the early draft seems to give the commissioners the leeway to examine any institution they believe needs to appear at the inquiry.

But what can a national inquiry accomplish? Are there limitations?

The Women’s Legal, Education, Action Fund is a coalition of advocacy groups including the Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto that legal action to advance women’s issues.

According to Christa Big Canoe, the organisations involved are watching the process to put together the inquiry.  and has prepared a FAQ on what an

In anticipation of the national inquiry call, it prepared a FAQ on what an inquiry can and cannot do

It is reproduced here.

#1: What is a national Commission of Inquiry?

National Commissions of Inquiry are federally established investigations into issues of national importance. Federal inquiries are established under terms set out in the Inquiries Act. This Act says that the federal Cabinet can establish an inquiry at any time.

  • Cabinet also has the discretion to determine the inquiry’s subject and scope. The Act is broad and gives the federal government ample discretion, so there is a lot of room for flexibility and creativity in designing the inquiry process. This can help to ensure a future inquiry will be a meaningful and sensitive process that includes diverse stakeholders.
  • However, this also means that early and thorough research and consultation is especially important, as this will help inform the inquiry’s design so that it can facilitate and support a fair, responsive, and effective process.

#2: How is it different from a Truth and Reconciliation Commission or a Royal Commission?

Inquiries can take several forms. Royal commissions are a type of public inquiry. They receive a special seal from the Queen, but otherwise are not different from other types of public inquiry.

  • Truth and reconciliation commissions are generally created to address mass human rights violations in a country’s past, usually as a country is transitioning from autocratic to democratic rule.
  • Canada’s recent Truth and Reconciliation Commission was unique because it was established as one part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, which was negotiated by residential school survivors, churches that operated the schools, and the federal government.

#3: How long do inquiries usually last from start to finish?

The length of an inquiry can be decided by the government or the Commissioners at the start of the inquiry process, and the Commission is expected to keep to its deadlines.

  • Past inquiries have varied considerably in length. For example, the Canadian Panel on Violence Against Women lasted two years, the Manitoba Aboriginal Justice Inquiry took three years, and the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples lasted five years.

#4: Who can establish an inquiry?

National Commissions of Inquiry are established by the federal Cabinet.

#5: What could inquiry proceedings look like?

The Commission has the power to determine the methods of an inquiry. Some Commission meetings and proceedings may be open to the general public and informal in nature. These could involve open houses, or opportunities to submit written comments.

  • A Commission may also decide to have some proceedings that are adversarial (i.e. court-like) hearings with witnesses, cross-examination, and legal representation. This format is adopted when Commissioners feel the need to test the evidence of presenters to sort out an unclear or contested situation. These types of proceeding may require the involvement of lawyers.
  • A commission may also hold closed hearings for highly delicate evidence, or the Commission may hold invitational symposia (i.e. meetings that are only open to those who are personally invited) or other meetings to hear the views of experts or certain key stakeholders. Again, the wide discretion of the Commission with regards to designing its own process is important to keep in mind. A Commission can use any combination of the above-mentioned types of process.
  • It can also design new and unique types of proceeding.

#6: Who will be able to participate in these proceedings?

Participation in an inquiry may depend on the type or format of the proceedings.

  • For open and informal proceedings, the Commission may encourage widespread public participation, usually by means of written comments submitted on paper or electronically, or by presenting to Commissioners in person.
  • Adversarial hearings may require standing to participate. This means that people who want to participate in the hearing process will need to establish either: 1) how they are affected by the issues being addressed in the hearing, or 2) how their participation would further the public interest. In this situation, the Commission would have the discretion to determine how it will assess whether individual applicants should have standing.
  • The Commission would also have the authority to determine who will be granted standing. In addition to granting standing to participate in this sort of proceeding, a Commission has power under the Inquiries Act to require the attendance of witnesses through subpoenas. While formal in nature, these adversarial 3 proceedings do have the potential to delve into contested or unclear proceedings do have the potential to delve into contested or unclear situations in search of a full picture of what has happened.
  • A Commission may also restrict participation to certain groups or individuals, depending on the issue being considered. For example, closed hearings may only be open to people who are personally invited.

#7: How will members of the public know whether they can participate?

Once a Commission of Inquiry is established and has designed its process, there will likely be some form of public notice informing members of the public about upcoming opportunities to participate in the inquiry. Such notices should also specify the means by which members of the public and interested parties will be able to participate.

#8: Could funding be available to inquiry participants?

A key issue for any Commission of Inquiry, and for its potential participants, is whether funding will be available to those from whom the Commission wishes to hear (i.e. grants standing to). In the past, such funding has been available at some Commissions for those taking part in either the fact-finding part of the Inquiry or its policy deliberations. It is useful to explore the practices of past Commissions to see how this funding is determined, as each Commission can establish its own rules and practices. However, as the Missing Women Inquiry in B.C. has demonstrated, it is essential that the government which establishes the Inquiry provide it with enough funding to permit it to grant funding to participants who need it. Some experts have provided guidance for setting up future Commissions of Inquiry funding mechanisms.

#9: What languages can an inquiry be conducted in?

There are no specific provisions in the Inquiries Act concerning which language an inquiry must use in its proceedings. Most national Commissions of Inquiry in the past have generally been conducted in either English, French, or both, though some have also enabled people to participate in Indigenous languages.

#10: What support could be provided to participants in an inquiry including survivors and the families of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls?

Given that a Commission has the discretion to hire any staff it may require, and because it has the power to design its own process, it could ensure that support is provided to survivors, families, and others.

#11: Can an inquiry integrate ceremony?

Yes. As a Commission has the discretion to create its own process, it has the authority to integrate ceremony.

#12: Who leads an inquiry? And how are they chosen?

The Inquiries Act requires the Cabinet to appoint the Commissioners who will lead an inquiry. The Act specifies that Cabinet has the discretion to appoint one or several Commissioners (s3).

  • In the past, Commissioners have tended to be retired judges, Attorneys General, or academics.
  • However, Commissioners may be any person or persons whom the Cabinet determines has qualifications to lead a particular inquiry, and appointing a retired judge does not in and of itself does ensure an inquiry’s independence.
  • Examples of Commissioners who have been appointed for other inquiries include Justice Sidney Lindon who led the Ipperwash Inquiry, while the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was co-chaired by George Erasmus a former national chief of the Assembly of First Nations, and Justice René Dussault from the Québec Appeal Court, with Viola Robinson, former president of the Native Council of Canada; Mary Sillett, former president of the national Inuit women’s association Pauktuutit and of the Inuit Tapirisat Canada; Paul Chartrand, a Métis lawyer and head of the Department of Native Studies at the University of Manitoba; Justice Bertha Wilson, former justice of the Supreme Court of Canada; and Allan Blakeney, former premier of Saskatchewan.

#13: What powers do Commissioners have?

Commissioners have quite extensive investigative powers.

  • They are able to summon any witnesses to give evidence in person or in writing, or provide documents requested by the Commission (s4 Inquiries Act).
  • Commissioners’ power to enforce the attendance of witnesses and compel them to give evidence is equal to that of courts in civil cases (s5 Inquiries Act).
  • Commissioners have the statutory authority to hire administrative, legal, research, and investigative staff as well as recognized experts to assist the Commission in its tasks.
  • Commissioners also have the discretion to hire whoever else they deem necessary (s11 Inquiries Act). This can include interpreters and support workers.

#14: Where can an inquiry take place?

Commissions have the discretion to hold meetings in and visit different parts of the country.

#15: Can there be regional or provincial branches of an inquiry?

While some provinces have their own legislation allowing their governments to establish provincial Commissions of Inquiry, these inquiries would only be able to examine agencies and issues that fall under their provincial jurisdiction. Although, it is worth noting that Ontario’s Public Inquiries Act permits the province to partner with the federal government in a joint public inquiry (s4). This section would allow a future national Commission of Inquiry to address provincial agencies and issues in Ontario.

  • The fact that a national Commission of Inquiry is federally established does not legally preclude provinces from engaging in the process. To date, all provinces have publicly expressed support for a national inquiry into violence against Indigenous women and girls. This may indicate some willingness by the provinces to collaborate and assist with a future national inquiry.
  • Further, as a national body, a federally established Commission of Inquiry is in a perfect position to address issues of interprovincial coordination and cooperation as well as coordination (or lack thereof) between the provinces and the federal government. This is significant in the context of violence against Indigenous women because the failure to provide co-ordination between different jurisdictions of the State has been identified by the United Nations inquiry report on murders and disappearances as a violation of the rights of Indigenous women in Canada. (This issue was also identified by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in its 2015 report, a 2013 Human Rights Watch report, a 2011 report by the SisterWatch program with the Vancouver Police Services, and a 2010 report by the Federal Provincial Territorial Coordinating Committee of Senior Officials on Criminal Justice. For more information on this issue please see this past LSC report).

#16: What is the possible scope of an Inquiry?

When Cabinet establishes a public inquiry, it must also specify the inquiry’s terms of reference. These terms of reference delineate the scope of an inquiry.

  • They generally specify: who the Commissioner(s) will be, the mandate or purpose of the inquiry, and the powers the Commission will have.
  • These terms of reference can also set the duration of an inquiry and any other specifications or guidelines Cabinet may want to include. Former Supreme Court of Canada Chief Justice Brian Dickson engaged in a pre-inquiry process to determine the terms of reference for the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. This pre-inquiry process is a good mechanism for ensuring consultation that will assist a government with developing strong terms of reference.
  • Public inquiries can investigate and study facts and statistics as well as policies and broader systemic issues. As will be discussed in the five sub-questions below, both facts and their broader historical, social, and legal contexts are equally important.
  • An inquiry can be well-equipped to study these things in an effective and helpful way.  Can an inquiry develop a clearer idea of the statistics of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls? Yes. Data collection and analysis is often a critical part of public inquiries. All inquiries are required to examine what is known, identify gaps in knowledge, and attempt to fill these gaps.
  • Gaining an understanding, and contributing to the public understanding, of an issue is an important cornerstone of any effective inquiry. Further, the databases and other resources prepared during a Commission’s activities can be a very useful public resource if independently maintained after the inquiry ends.
  • An example of this can is the Krever Inquiry, which was established to examine the tainted blood supply in Canada. The inquiry’s work and data collection ultimately led to the establishment of the Canadian Blood Services, an independent agency that continues to administer the country’s national blood bank. As such, these resources produced during the inquiry process continue to be an important living document for the public.
  • The independent collection, ongoing management, and public reporting of data is an especially important issue in the context of violence against Indigenous women and girls in Canada. Over the course of many years, collection, analysis, and public release of statistics and other data has been uneven and insufficient. This has deprived families, communities, Indigenous peoples’ organizations, and the public of an accurate, comprehensive, accessible, and up-to-date statistical picture of disappearances and murders.
  • The Sisters in Spirit database of the Native Women’s Association of Canada, which was in the process of addressing these issues, was defunded by the federal government in 2010. The RCMP have not been transparent with their data on this issue.
  • Several grassroots databases have been initiated across the country that would benefit from being better resourced, more coordinated, integrated, and standardized.

Can an inquiry examine the root causes of violence against Indigenous women and girls?

Yes. The majority of the literature on the subject of violence against Indigenous women and girls is unanimous about its historical, sociological, and legal root causes. The 2015 Inter-American Commission on Human Rights report on missing and murdered Indigenous women in British Columbia discussed the systemic and sociological factors responsible for the disproportionate violence faced by Indigenous women in the province. It explained that the disappearances and murders of Indigenous women in Canada are part of a broader pattern of violence and discrimination against these women throughout the country (p11). The report also noted systemic failures in policing, as well as the legacies of Canadian colonization and the persistence of discriminatory laws such as the Indian Act were responsible for the violence (p12).

The 2015 United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) report confirmed the broad systemic causes for violence against Indigenous women in Canada. These included the social and economic marginalization of Indigenous women in Canada, failures by the police to promptly and thoroughly investigate instances of violence against Indigenous women, and the reluctance of the federal government to take immediate and effective state action (p3).

Can an inquiry examine government policies, laws, and practices?

Yes. A national Commission of Inquiry will be able to examine existing laws and policies, as well as the legacies of past laws and policies. A Commission will also have the authority to examine prevalent practices within government agencies that may not be explicitly required by law (and/or may be inconsistent with the law).

Can an inquiry examine RCMP policies and conduct?

Yes. A national Commission of Inquiry will be able to investigate and examine systemic issues within the RCMP that relate to violence against Indigenous women and girls, including RCMP policies and the conduct of RCMP officers.

Can an inquiry examine individual cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls?

It is important for the future inquiry to ensure that all investigations of missing and murdered women are thorough and unbiased. It is also important to review cases in a way that highlights both positive practices where they exist, as well as system failings that need to be addressed. If this is consistent with the Commission of Inquiry’s terms of reference, it may be possible for it to examine individual cases.

However, given the high volume of implicated cases, individual case reviews for all past cases may not be feasible. More importantly, a public inquiry may not be the most helpful or advantageous way to review individual cases. Rather, an independent civilian investigation unit whose sole purpose and focus is to investigate individual cases may be appropriate. Such a unit could liaise with the Commission but its mandate could extend beyond the life of the Commission. Ultimately, it will be important to ensure that any inquiry or civilian investigation unit reviewing individual cases is independent from government and accountable.

#17: How can an inquiry ensure it does not merely duplicate what has been done already by other inquests and inquiries?

When setting the inquiry’s terms of reference and determining its scope and tasks, preliminary research and consultation will be required to determine where knowledge gaps exists and how the Commission may be able to fill these gaps. This preliminary research will also be helpful in identifying steps that governments can take right away, without waiting for the results of the inquiry. For a more detailed description and discussion of the findings of past inquiries and reports, as well as a discussion of areas that still require further research and study, please see past work by the Legal Strategy Coalition on Violence Against Indigenous Women.

#18: How is the independence of an inquiry ensured?

The independence of past Commissions of Inquiry has generally been protected by ensuring that they are established at arm’s length from government. Practically speaking, this would require the Commission to have control over its own budget, structure, and other administrative decisions. In addition, the Commissioners must be seen to be independent, that is, not subject to guidance or direction from government once its initial terms of reference have been provided. It is also important that the Commissioners should not have been part of any past government or agency whose conduct will be examined.

#19: Are there any mechanisms to ensure a Commission’s accountability in the process and outcome of an inquiry?

Yes. The more proceedings are made open and accessible to the public, the more accountable and transparent the Commission will be perceived to be.

  • Encouraging public scrutiny and media access can also help to ensure accountability.
  • It is worth noting that the ultimate findings of a public inquiry are judicially reviewable by the Federal Court. This means that an individual can apply to the Federal Court to review a Commission’s decisions if it is believed that the decisions included factual or legal errors, failed to follow established procedures, or failed to conform to the scope of the Commission’s mandate.
  • Judicial review can help to ensure a Commission’s accountability.

#20: When the inquiry provides recommendations, is there a way to guarantee that these recommendations are implemented?

There is no statutory duty to implement the recommendations of a national Commission of Inquiry.

  • However, it is possible to take measures to improve the likelihood of recommendations being implemented. For example, eight years after the release of the final report of the Manitoba Aboriginal Justice Inquiry, the Manitoba government established the Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission.
  • This Commission was tasked with reviewing the original inquiry recommendations, assessing the extent to which they were implemented, and ultimately directing how they could best be implemented more effectively. What is included in the Commission’s mandate regarding expected outcomes will matter, as will public attention to ensuring that the Commission’s work is orientated towards producing action and concrete measurable change.

http://aptn.ca/news/2016/08/01/mmiwg-what-a-national-inquiry-can-and-cannot-do/

Indigenous Women Demand Stronger Provincial Support For National Inquiry

The Urban Warrior Alliance camps outside the legislature to protest the delays in the missing and murdered indigenous women inquiry Tuesday. RUTH BONNEVILLE / WINNIPEG FREE PRESS

The Urban Warrior Alliance camps outside the legislature to protest the delays in the missing and murdered indigenous women inquiry Tuesday. RUTH BONNEVILLE / WINNIPEG FREE PRESS

Winnipeg Free Press, By: Alexandra Paul Posted: 07/26/2016

A group of indigenous women camping at the legislature wants to know whether Manitoba supports a national inquiry into missing and murdered indigenous women.

“Our understanding is the government is holding up the inquiry over the terms of reference and over semantics. So what’s going on? The families are waiting,” said Chelsea Cardinal, one of two women at the camp Tuesday.

There were three tents set up on the legislature’s front lawn; a similar tent camp two years ago also called for a national inquiry, before Ottawa signed on to it.

The group is expected to take turns, holding down the camp, where a fire for prayers was lit Monday evening, over the next four days and nights.

The latest camp comes after a week or more of mixed signals and growing frustration among indigenous advocates in and outside Manitoba that the inquiry is being held up.

The national inquiry will look at the estimated 1,200 missing and murdered indigenous women and girls in Canada, including more than 100 who are from Manitoba.

Prior to the premiers’ meeting last weekend in Whitehorse, federal Indigenous Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett attempted to settle public concerns after a copy of the terms of reference for the inquiry was leaked. She assured advocates that policing and child welfare issues, both systemic issues, would form a big part of the mandate.

Aboriginal leaders and premiers also added their oar to calm the waters by stating there was no need to wait for an inquiry to get to work on the socio-economic issues behind the problem, another issue indigenous advocates and families have repeatedly raised.

And late Tuesday, in response to word the camp had been set up, Manitoba waded in to break through the continued confusion with an unequivocal statement of support for the national inquiry.

“Manitoba’s new government intends to move forward with an order in council in support of the federal government’s establishment of a national inquiry. We will do this in a timely manner as we continue to work with our federal and provincial partners to finalize the draft terms of reference,” Justice Minister Heather Stefanson said in an email to the Free Press.

The statement raised one of the major points of confusion, that the terms of reference were an issue still to be worked out with Ottawa. Stephanson’s statement did not go into details.

The concern with the Pallister government is Manitoba may try to delay the national inquiry, or at the very least pare down it’s scope, to leave out systemic issues such as the child welfare and policing, women at the legislature camp said.

The camp’s concerns echo the province’s First Nations and indigenous leaders who met a week ago with the provincial ministers for justice and indigenous and municipal affairs and issued public statements urging the province to sign on to the inquiry.

NDP MLA Nahanni Fontaine, the NDP government’s former adviser on missing and murdered indigenous women’s issues, told the women Tuesday their presence reminds the province it owes the public an explanation on where it stands.

“You cannot just do the work and not advise the families of the missing and murdered indigenous women and girls on what you’re doing,” Fontaine said.

The federal Liberals made the national inquiry, something former Conservative prime minister Stephen Harper opposed, a major election promise.

But since Justin Trudeau became prime minister, headway in Ottawa appears to be meeting headwinds in Manitoba by the Conservatives under Premier Brian Pallister, the women at the camp said.

They cited Leslie Spillett’s removal from the Winnipeg Police Board this month as a jolt, especially since the respected indigenous advocate hadn’t been given the courtesy of a phone call before the announcement was made public.

“What is going to be happening next? We took a few steps forward with the national inquiry happening. Now it’s being held up again. To us, it seems like tactics,” Sandy Banman said.

Fontaine told the women to expect an announcement from Ottawa as early as next week on the start of the national inquiry.

The most recent media reports noted the province wanted a commissioner from Manitoba named to the inquiry and they had questions over the inquiry’s terms of reference.

alexandra.paul@freepress.mb.ca

Read more by Alexandra Paul   .

http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/indigenous-women-demand-stronger-provincial-support-for-national-inquiry-388321392.html

Missing And Murdered Inquiry Will Lack Power To Compel Police Action

Madeline Lanaro, whose 12-year-old daughter Monica Jack was murdered in 1978, wipes away tears after the RCMP announced an arrest in connection to her murder and that of Kathryn-Mary Herbert, during a news conference in Surrey, B.C. December 1, 2014

Madeline Lanaro, whose 12-year-old daughter Monica Jack was murdered in 1978, wipes away tears after the RCMP announced the arrest of Garry Taylor Handlen, in connection to her murder and that of Kathryn-Mary Herbert, during a news conference in Surrey, B.C. Dec 1, 2014.

The Globe and Mail, Jul 21, 2016

The national inquiry into Canada’s missing and murdered indigenous women will not have the authority to make findings of police misconduct or compel law-enforcement agencies to reopen cold cases, according to a draft of the terms of reference.

The nine-page document, which the federal government circulated to the provinces and territories for review, says five people will be appointed to the commission, with one individual named chief commissioner.

Sources have told The Globe that the following individuals are on the draft list: B.C. provincial court judge Marion Buller; former Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) president Michèle Audette, who lost her bid to represent the Liberals in a Quebec riding in last fall’s federal election; Qajaq Robinson, a Nunavut-born civil litigation lawyer who speaks Inuktitut; Marilyn Poitras, a Métis law professor at the University of Saskatchewan; and a First Nations lawyer who served on the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario.

Judge Buller, who became B.C.’s first female First Nations judge in 1994, is said to be a contender to lead the commission. The Globe attempted to contact her through the Office of the Chief Judge but the office said it had not been able to reach her.

Ottawa’s self-imposed timeline for the launch of the inquiry has been pushed back on several occasions while the provinces and territories study the proposed terms of reference.

The draft document, which is not dated and is watermarked “sensitive and confidential,” says the commissioners will investigate and report on “systemic causes of violence against indigenous women and girls in Canada, including underlying social, economic, cultural, institutional and historical causes.” The commission, which is mandated to produce interim and final reports, is directed to establish regional advisory bodies comprised of victims’ families and survivors of violence.

Ms. Audette said a government official approached her about a potential appointment to the commission, and said her understanding is that no final decisions have been made. Ms. Robinson declined to comment. Ms. Poitras said she had no information to provide, and the Ontario lawyer could not be reached. Carolyn Campbell, a spokeswoman for Indigenous Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett, said her office would not comment on the list of potential commissioners or on the terms of reference.

The Liberal government has so far committed $40-million over two years to conduct the inquiry into Canada’s more than 1,181 missing and murdered indigenous women. Sources said Ottawa intends to dedicate further funding to help victims’ relatives navigate the police complaints process if they question the quality of an investigation.

The national inquiry will inevitably review policing – a key reason Ottawa is getting the provinces and territories to sign on to the terms of reference is to ensure matters outside federal jurisdiction, notably child welfare and provincial and municipal policing, are deemed to be squarely within the inquiry’s scope.

However, the draft terms of reference do not explicitly mandate the inquiry to delve into policing policies or practices. And contrary to the hopes of some victims’ relatives and indigenous leaders, the document does not give the commission the power to compel police forces to reopen cold cases, pursue particular investigative avenues or probe an officer’s alleged misconduct. There is no mention of the creation of an independent civilian body that would review specific investigations or police conduct – something NWAC called for in its preinquiry report to the federal government.

Instead, the draft mandate authorizes the commission to pass along to the “appropriate authorities” any information that may be used in the investigation or prosecution of a criminal offence. It also says commissioners can provide authorities with information they believe relates to misconduct. The commission is not authorized to make findings or recommendations of civil or criminal liability.

Several indigenous, feminist and front-line organizations have publicly criticized the draft terms of reference, which were leaked and posted online. A joint statement released Wednesday by various high-profile advocates, including from Amnesty International Canada and the Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action, called the omission of an explicit reference to policing “shocking.” It also lamented the lack of an independent case-review process.

“This appears to be sending families back in a circle, to the same authorities with whom they were/are having problems to start with,” the statement says. “This risks putting the Commissioners in an untenable position as they will appear to be part of the problem, not the solution.”

[SOURCE]